Spanning Tree Protocol concepts explained | RSTP | PVST | Practonet

Spanning Tree Protocol Concepts

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Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) allows Ethernet LANs to have the added benefits of installing redundant links in a LAN, while overcoming the known problems that occur when adding those extra links. Using redundant links in a LAN design allows the LAN to keep working even when some links fail or even when some entire switches fail. Proper LAN design should add enough redundancy so that no single point of failure crashes the LAN; STP allows the design to use redundancy without causing some other problems.

Without some mechanism like Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) or Rapid STP (RSTP), a LAN with redundant links would cause Ethernet frames to loop for an indefinite period of time. With STP or RSTP enabled, some switches block ports so that these ports do not forward frames. STP and RSTP intelligently choose which ports block, with two goals in mind:

■ All devices in a VLAN can send frames to all other devices. In other words, STP or RSTP does not block too many ports, cutting off some parts of the LAN from other parts.

■ Frames have a short life and do not loop around the network indefinitely.

STP and RSTP strike a balance, allowing frames to be delivered to each device, without causing the problems that occur when frames loop through the network over and over again. STP/RSTP prevents looping frames by adding an additional check on each interface before a switch uses it to send or receive user traffic. That check: If the port is in STP/RSTP forwarding state in that VLAN, use it as normal; if it is in STP/RSTP blocking state, however, block all user traffic and do not send or receive user traffic on that interface in that VLAN. Note that these STP/RSTP states do not change the other information you already know about switch interfaces. The interface’s state of connected/notconnect does not change. The interface’s operational state as either an access or trunk port does not change. STP/RSTP adds this additional state, with the blocking state basically disabling the interface.

In many ways, those last two paragraphs sum up what STP/RSTP does. However, the details of how STP/RSTP does its work can take a fair amount of study and practice. This first major section of the chapter begins by explaining the need for STP/RSTP and the basic ideas of what STP/RSTP does to solve the problem of looping frames. The majority of this section then looks at how STP/RSTP goes about choosing which switch ports to block to accomplish its goals.

The Need for Spanning Tree

STP/RSTP prevents three common problems in Ethernet LANs. All three problems occur as a side effect of one fact: without STP/RSTP, some Ethernet frames would loop around the network for a long time (hours, days, literally forever if the LAN devices and links never failed). Just one looping frame causes what is called a broadcast storm. Broadcast storms happen when any kind of Ethernet frames—broadcast frames, multicast frames, or unknown-destination unicast frames—loop around a LAN indefinitely. Broadcast storms can saturate all the links with copies of that one single frame, crowding out good frames, as well as significantly impacting end-user device performance by making the PCs process too many broadcast frames.

Below shows a sample network in which Bob sends a broadcast frame. The dashed lines show how the switches forward the frame when STP/RSTP does not exist.



That logic tells switches to flood broadcasts out all interfaces in the same VLAN except the interface in which the frame arrived. That means SW3 forwards Bob’s frame to SW2, SW2 forwards the frame to SW1, SW1 forwards the frame back to SW3, and SW3 forwards it back to SW2 again. When broadcast storms happen, frames like the one keep looping until something changes—someone shuts down an interface, reloads a switch, or does something else to break the loop. Also note that the same event happens in the opposite direction. When Bob sends the original frame, SW3 also forwards a copy to SW1, SW1 forwards it to SW2, and so on. The storm also causes a much more subtle problem called MAC table instability. MAC table instability means that the switches’ MAC address tables keep changing because frames with the same source MAC arrive on different ports. To see why, follow this example, in which SW3 begins Figure with a MAC table entry for Bob, at the bottom of the figure, associated with port Fa0/13:

0200.3333.3333 Fa0/13 VLAN 1

However, now think about the switch-learning process that occurs when the looping frame goes to SW2, then SW1, and then back into SW3’s Gi0/1 interface. SW3 thinks, “Hmm…the source MAC address is 0200.3333.3333, and it came in my Gi0/1 interface. Update my MAC table!” This results in the following entry on SW3, with interface Gi0/1 instead of Fa0/13:

0200.3333.3333 Gi0/1

VLAN 1 At this point, SW3 itself cannot correctly deliver frames to Bob’s MAC address. At that instant, if a frame arrives at SW3 destined for Bob—a different frame than the looping frame that causes the problems—SW3 incorrectly forwards the frame out Gi0/1 to SW1, creating even more congestion.

The looping frames in a broadcast storm also cause a third problem: multiple copies of the frame arrive at the destination. Consider a case in which Bob sends a frame to Larry but none of the switches know Larry’s MAC address. Switches flood frames sent to unknown destination unicast MAC addresses. When Bob sends the frame destined for Larry’s MAC address, SW3 sends a copy to both SW1 and SW2. SW1 and SW2 also flood the frame, causing copies of the frame to loop. SW1 also sends a copy of each frame out Fa0/11 to Larry. As a result, Larry gets multiple copies of the frame, which may result in an application failure, if not more pervasive networking problems.

What Spanning Tree Does

STP/RSTP prevents loops by placing each switch port in either a forwarding state or a blocking state. Interfaces in the forwarding state act as normal, forwarding and receiving frames. However, interfaces in a blocking state do not process any frames except STP/RSTP messages (and some other overhead messages). Interfaces that block do not forward user frames, do not learn MAC addresses of received frames, and do not process received user frames.

Below shows a simple STP/RSTP tree that solves the problem shown in Figure 9-1 by placing one port on SW3 in the blocking state.



Now when Bob sends a broadcast frame, the frame does not loop. As shown in the steps in the figure:

Step 1. Bob sends the frame to SW3.

Step 2. SW3 forwards the frame only to SW1, but not out Gi0/2 to SW2, because SW3’s Gi0/2 interface is in a blocking state.

Step 3. SW1 floods the frame out both Fa0/11 and Gi0/1.

Step 4. SW2 floods the frame out Fa0/12 and Gi0/1.

Step 5. SW3 physically receives the frame, but it ignores the frame received from SW2 because SW3’s Gi0/2 interface is in a blocking state.

Spanning-tree Terms

1. Root bridge & Election : The root bridge is the bridge with the lowest and, therefore, the best bridge ID. The switches within the STP network elect a root bridge, which becomes the focal point in the network. All other decisions in the network, like which ports on the non root bridges should be blocked or put in forwarding mode, are made from the perspective of the root bridge, and once it has been elected, all other bridges must create a single path to it. The port with the best path to the root bridge is called the root port.

Election is perform on the basis of Bridge ID which is of 8 bytes. In which 2 bytes is of priority and 6 byte is od MAC address. By default priority is 32768. The lower bridge id is preferred for RB. First priority is taken and is it is tie then mac address is seen. In below topology both using the default priority of 32,768, the MAC address will be the determining factor instead. And because Switch A’s MAC address is 0000.0cab.3274 and Switch B’s MAC address is 0000.0cf6.9370, Switch A becomes the root bridge.



2. Non-root bridge : These are all bridges that aren’t the root bridge. Non-root bridges exchange BPDUs with all the other bridges and update the STP topology database on all switches. This prevents loops and helps defend against link failures.

3. BPDU : All switches exchange information to use for the subsequent configuration of the network. Each switch compares the parameters in the Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) that it sends to a neighbor with the parameters in the BPDU that it receives from other neighbors. Inside the BPDU is the bridge ID.

4. Bridge ID : The bridge ID is how STP keeps track of all the switches in the network. It’s determined by a combination of the bridge priority, which is 32,768 by default on all Cisco switches, and the base MAC address. The bridge with the lowest bridge ID becomes the root bridge in the network. Once the root bridge is established, every other switch must make a single path to it.

5. Path cost : A switch may encounter one or more switches on its path to the Root Bridge, and there may be more than one possible path. All unique paths are analyzed individually, and a path cost is calculated for each unique path by adding the individual port costs encountered on the way to the Root Bridge.

Bridge Port Roles

1. Root port (RP) : The root port is the link with the lowest path cost to the root bridge. If more than one link connects to the root bridge, then a port cost is found by checking the bandwidth of each link. The lowest-cost port becomes the root port. When multiple links connect to the same device, the port connected to the lowest port number on the upstream switch will be the one that’s used. The root bridge can never have a root port designation, while every other switch in a network must have one and only one root port.

2. Designated port (DP) : A designated port is one that’s been determined to have the best i.e lowest cost to get to on a given network segment, compared to other ports on that segment. A designated port will be marked as a forwarding port, and you can have only one forwarding port per network segment.

3. Blocked port : A blocked port won’t forward frames in order to prevent loops. A blocked port will still always listen to BPDU frames from neighbor switches, but it will drop any and all other frames received and will never transmit a frame.

Spanning-Tree Port States

The ports on a bridge or switch can transition data through five different states:

1. Disable : A port in the administratively disabled state doesn’t participate in frame forwarding or STP.

2. Blocked : A blocked port won’t forward frames; it just listens to BPDUs. The purpose of the blocking state is to prevent the use of looped paths. All ports are in blocking state by default when the switch is powered up.

3. Listening : This port listens to BPDUs to make sure no loops occur on the network before passing data frames. A port in listening state prepares to forward data frames without populating the MAC address table. Time taken by this state is 15 Sec to enter learning state.

4. Learning : The switch port listens to BPDUs and learns all the paths in the switched network. A port in learning state populates the MAC address table but still doesn’t forward data frames. Time taken by this state is 15 Sec.

5. Forwarding : This port sends and receives all data frames on the bridged port. If the port is still a designated or root port at the end of the learning state, it will enter the forwarding state. Time taken by this state is 2 Sec.

STP Timers

STP utilizes three timers to ensure all switches remain synchronized, and to allow enough time for the Spanning Tree process to ensure a loop-free environment.

• Hello Timer – Default is 2 seconds. Indicates how often BPDU’s are sent by switches.

• Forward Delay – Default is 15 seconds. Indicates a delay period in both the listening and learning states of a port, for a total of 30 seconds. This delay ensures STP has ample time to detect and eliminate loops.

• Max Age – Default is 20 seconds. Indicates how long a switch will keep BPDU information from a neighboring switch before discarding it. In other words, if a switch fails to receive BPDU’s from a neighboring switch for the Max Age period, it will remove that switch’s information from the STP topology database.

All timer values can be adjusted, and should only be adjusted on the Root Bridge. The Root Bridge will propagate the changed timers to all other switches participating in STP. Non-Root switches will ignore their locally configured timers. The timers are measured in seconds. To adjust the three STP timers for VLAN 10:

Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 hello-time 10
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 forward-time 20
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 max-age 40

STP Topology Changes

An STP topology change will occur under two circumstances:

• When an interface is placed into a Forwarding state.
• When an interface already in a Forwarding or Learning state is placed into a Blocking state.

The switch recognizing this topology change will send out a TCN (Topology Change Notification) BPDU, destined for the Root Bridge. The TCN BPDU does not contain any data about the actual change – it only indicates that a change occurred. For example, if the interface on Switch 4 connecting to Switch 5 went down, Switch 4 would send a TCN out its Root Port to Switch 2. Switch 2 will acknowledge this TCN by sending a BPDU back to Switch 4 with the Topology Change Acknowledgement (TCA) bit set. Switch 2 would then forward the TCN out its Root Port to Switch 1 (the Root Bridge). Once the Root Bridge receives the TCN, it will send out a BPDU with the Topology Change (TC) bit set to all switches. When a switch receives this Root BPDU, it will temporarily lower its MAC-address Aging Timer from 300 seconds to 15 seconds, so that any erroneous MAC addresses can be quickly flushed out of the CAM table. The MAC-Address Aging Timer will stay lowered to 15 seconds for a period of 35 seconds by default, or one Max Age (20 seconds) plus one Forward Delay (15 seconds) timer.



Basic STP Configuration

To enable STP for a specific VLAN:
Switch(config)#spanning-tree vlan 10

To disable STP for a specific VLAN:
Switch(config)# no spanning-tree vlan 10

To adjust the Bridge Priority of a switch from its default of 32,768, to increase its chances of being elected Root Bridge of a VLAN:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 priority 150

To change an interface’s Path Cost from its defaults:
Switch(config)# int fa0/24
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree cost 42


To force a switch to become the Root Bridge:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 root primary

The root primary parameter in the above command automatically lowers the switch’s priority to 24,576. If another switch on the network has a lower priority than 24,576, the above command will lower the priority by 4096 less than the priority of the other switch. It is possible to assign a Secondary Root Bridge for redundancy. To force a switch to become a Secondary Root Bridge:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 root secondary

The root secondary parameter in the above command automatically lowers the switch’s priority to 28,672. To specify the diameter of the switching topology:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 root primary diameter 7

The diameter parameter in the preceding command indicates the length of the STP topology (number of switches). The maximum (and default) value for the diameter is 7. Note that the switching topology can contain more than seven switches; however, each branch of the switching tree can only extend seven switches deep, from the Root Bridge.

STP Link Failure

1. Direct Link failure
When main path goes down and backup path is available for that particular destination from source, is called Direct Link Failure. When the main link goes down then next link takes time to be active. So to make backup path immediately active Uplink fast is used in trunk port.
switch# spanning-tree uplinkfast



2. Indirect Link Failure
When link between A and B is failed then B says to C that i am Root Brodge and sends BPDU & switch sees that and checks Bridge ID of Switch A and BPDU and sends bridge of of A to B and switc B knows there is a lower bridge in topology. SW C waits for 20 sec before deciding which is max age timer and after 20 sec it start converge the topology. for whole process it takes 52 sec but we can save max age time i.e 20 sec by using backbone fast command.
switch# spanning-tree backbone-fast

STP Protection

STP is vulnerable to attack for two reasons:
• STP builds its topology information by accepting a neighboring switch’s BPDU’s.
• The Root Bridge is always determined by the lowest Bridge ID.

Switches with a low priority can be maliciously placed on the network, and elected the Root Bridge. This may result in a suboptimal or unstable STP topology. Cisco implemented three mechanisms to protect the STP topology:

• Root Guard
• BPDU Guard
• BPDU Filtering


All three mechanisms are configured on an individual interface basis, and are disabled by default. When enabled, these mechanisms apply to all VLANs for that particular interface.

1. Root Guard :
Root Guard prevents an unauthorized switch from advertising itself as a Root Bridge.
Switch(config)# interface fa0/10
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree guard root


The above command will prevents the switch from accepting a new Root Bridge off of the fa0/10 interface. If a Root Bridge advertises itself to this port, the port will enter a root-inconsistent state.

2. BPDU Guard :
BPDU Guard is employed on interfaces that are PortFast-enabled. NOrmally a PortFast-enabled interface connects to a host device, and thus the interface should never receive a BPDU. If another switch is accidentally or maliciously connected into a PortFast interface, BPDU Guard will place the interface into an errdisable state. To enable BPDU Guard:
Switch(config)# interface fa0/10
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree bpduguard enable


To take an interface out of an errdisable state, simply disable and re-enable the interface:
Switch(config)# interface fa0/10
Switch(config-if)# shutdown
Switch(config-if)# no shutdown


3. BPDU Filter :
BPDU Filtering essentially disables STP on a particular interface, by preventing it from sending or receiving BPDU’s:
Switch(config)# interface fa0/10
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree bpdufilter enable


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Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol - RSTP Concepts

To further alleviate the 30 to 50 second convergence delays with STP, enhancements were made to the original IEEE 802.1D standard. The result was 802.1w, or Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP RSTP is similar in many respects to STP. BPDU’s are forwarded between switches, and a Root Bridge is elected, based on the lowest Bridge ID. Root Ports and Designated Ports are also elected. RSTP defines five port types:

• Root Port – Switch port on each switch that has the best Path Cost to the Root Bridge (same as STP).
• Alternate Port – A backup Root Port, that has a less desirable Path Cost. An Alternate Port is placed in a discarding state.
• Designated Port – Non-Root port that represents the best Path Cost for each network segment to the Root Bridge (same as STP). Designated ports are also referred to as Point-to-Point ports.
• Backup Port – A backup Designated Port, that has a less desirable Path Cost. A Backup Port is placed in a discarding state.
• Edge Port – A port connecting a host device, which is moved to a Forwarding state immediately. If an Edge Port receives a BPDU, it will lose its Edge Port status and participate in RSTP calculations. On Cisco Catalyst switches, any port configured with PortFast becomes an Edge Port.

The key benefit of RSTP is speedier convergence. Switches no longer require artificial Forwarding Delay timers to ensure a loop-free environment. Switches instead perform a handshake synchronization to ensure a consistent topology table. During initial convergence, the Root Bridge and its directly-connected switches will place their interfaces in a discarding state. The Root Bridge and those switches will exchange BPDU’s, synchronize their topology tables, and then place their interfaces in a forwarding state. Each switch will then perform the same handshaking process with their downstream neighbors. The result is convergence that completes in a few seconds, as opposed to 30 to 50 seconds.

Port States

There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state.

Port Roles

The role is now a variable assigned to a given port. The root port and designated port roles remain, while the blocking port role is split into the backup and alternate port roles. The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) determines the role of a port based on Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). In order to simplify matters, the thing to remember about a BPDU is there is always a method to compare any two of them and decide whether one is more useful than the other. This is based on the value stored in the BPDU and occasionally on the port on which they are received.

Root Port Roles
The port that receives the best BPDU on a bridge is the root port. This is the port that is the closest to the root bridge in terms of path cost. The STA elects a single root bridge in the whole bridged network (per-VLAN). The root bridge sends BPDUs that are more useful than the ones any other bridge sends. The root bridge is the only bridge in the network that does not have a root port. All other bridges receive BPDUs on at least one port.


Designated Port Role
A port is designated if it can send the best BPDU on the segment to which it is connected. 802.1D bridges link together different segments, such as Ethernet segments, to create a bridged domain. On a given segment, there can only be one path toward the root bridge. If there are two, there is a bridging loop in the network. All bridges connected to a given segment listen to the BPDUs of each and agree on the bridge that sends the best BPDU as the designated bridge for the segment. The port on that bridge that corresponds is the designated port for that segment.


Alternate and Backup Port Roles
These two port roles correspond to the blocking state of 802.1D. A blocked port is defined as not being the designated or root port. A blocked port receives a more useful BPDU than the one it sends out on its segment. Remember that a port absolutely needs to receive BPDUs in order to stay blocked. RSTP introduces these two roles for this purpose.

An alternate port receives more useful BPDUs from another bridge and is a port blocked. This is shown in this diagram:


A backup port receives more useful BPDUs from the same bridge it is on and is a port blocked. This is shown in this diagram:


This distinction is already made internally within 802.1D. This is essentially how Cisco UplinkFast functions. The rationale is that an alternate port provides an alternate path to the root bridge and therefore can replace the root port if it fails. Of course, a backup port provides redundant connectivity to the same segment and cannot guarantee an alternate connectivity to the root bridge. Therefore, it is excluded from the uplink group.

As a result, RSTP calculates the final topology for the spanning tree that uses the same criteria as 802.1D. There is absolutely no change in the way the different bridge and port priorities are used. The name blocking is used for the discarding state in Cisco implementation. CatOS releases 7.1 and later still display the listening and learning states. This gives even more information about a port than the IEEE standard requires. However, the new feature is now there is a difference between the role the protocol determines for a port and its current state. For example, it is now perfectly valid for a port to be designated and blocking at the same time. While this typically occurs for very short periods of time, it simply means that this port is in a transitory state towards the designated forwarding state.

BPDU Format

Few changes have been introduced by RSTP to the BPDU format. Only two flags, Topology Change (TC) and TC Acknowledgment (TCA), are defined in 802.1D. However, RSTP now uses all six bits of the flag byte that remain in order to perform:

Encode the role and state of the port that originates the BPDU, Handle the proposal/agreement mechanism.

BPDU Handling

BPDU are Sent Every Hello-Time
BPDU are sent every hello-time, and not simply relayed anymore. With 802.1D, a non-root bridge only generates BPDUs when it receives one on the root port. In fact, a bridge relays BPDUs more than it actually generates them. This is not the case with 802.1w. A bridge now sends a BPDU with its current information every seconds (2 by default), even if it does not receive any from the root bridge.

Faster Aging of Information
On a given port, if hellos are not received three consecutive times, protocol information can be immediately aged out (or if max_age expires). Because of the previously mentioned protocol modification, BPDUs are now used as a keep-alive mechanism between bridges. A bridge considers that it loses connectivity to its direct neighbor root or designated bridge if it misses three BPDUs in a row. This fast aging of the information allows quick failure detection. If a bridge fails to receive BPDUs from a neighbor, it is certain that the connection to that neighbor is lost. This is opposed to 802.1D where the problem might have been anywhere on the path to the root.

Accepts Inferior BPDUs
This concept is what makes up the core of the BackboneFast engine. The IEEE 802.1w committee decided to incorporate a similar mechanism into RSTP. When a bridge receives inferior information from its designated or root bridge, it immediately accepts it and replaces the one previously stored. Because Bridge C still knows the root is alive and well, it immediately sends a BPDU to Bridge B that contains information about the root bridge. As a result, Bridge B does not send its own BPDUs and accepts the port that leads to Bridge C as the new root port.

Rapid Transition to Forwarding State

Rapid transition is the most important feature introduced by 802.1w. The legacy STA passively waited for the network to converge before it turned a port into the forwarding state. The achievement of faster convergence was a matter of tuning the conservative default parameters (forward delay and max_age timers) and often put the stability of the network at stake. The new rapid STP is able to actively confirm that a port can safely transition to the forwarding state without having to rely on any timer configuration. There is now a real feedback mechanism that takes place between RSTP-compliant bridges. In order to achieve fast convergence on a port, the protocol relies upon two new variables: edge ports and link type.

Edge Ports
The edge port concept is already well known to Cisco spanning tree users, as it basically corresponds to the PortFast feature. All ports directly connected to end stations cannot create bridging loops in the network. Therefore, the edge port directly transitions to the forwarding state, and skips the listening and learning stages. Neither edge ports or PortFast enabled ports generate topology changes when the link toggles. An edge port that receives a BPDU immediately loses edge port status and becomes a normal spanning tree port. At this point, there is a user-configured value and an operational value for the edge port state. The Cisco implementation maintains that the PortFast keyword be used for edge port configuration. This makes the transition to RSTP simpler.

Link Type
RSTP can only achieve rapid transition to the forwarding state on edge ports and on point-to-point links. The link type is automatically derived from the duplex mode of a port. A port that operates in full-duplex is assumed to be point-to-point, while a half-duplex port is considered as a shared port by default. This automatic link type setting can be overridden by explicit configuration. In switched networks today, most links operate in full-duplex mode and are treated as point-to-point links by RSTP. This makes them candidates for rapid transition to the forwarding state.

Convergence with RSTP

Both ports on the link between A and the root are put in designated blocking as soon as they come up. Thus far, everything behaves as in a pure 802.1D environment. However, at this stage, a negotiation takes place between Switch A and the root. As soon as A receives the BPDU of the root, it blocks the non-edge designated ports. This operation is called sync. Once this is done, Bridge A explicitly authorizes the root bridge to put its port in the forwarding state. This diagram illustrates the result of this process on the network. The link between Switch A and the root bridge is blocked, and both bridges exchange BPDUs.

Once Switch A blocks its non-edge designated ports, the link between Switch A and the root is put in the forwarding state and you reach the situation:

There still cannot be a loop. Instead of blocking above Switch A, the network now blocks below Switch A. However, the potential bridging loop is cut at a different location. This cut travels down the tree along with the new BPDUs originated by the root through Switch A. At this stage, the newly blocked ports on Switch A also negotiate a quick transition to the forwarding state with their neighbor ports on Switch B and Switch C that both initiate a sync operation. Other than the root port towards A, Switch B only has edge designated ports. Therefore, it has no port to block in order to authorize Switch A to go to the forwarding state. Similarly, Switch C only has to block its designated port to D. The state shown in this diagram is now reached:

The only new mechanism introduced by RSTP is the acknowledgment that a switch can send on its new root port in order to authorize immediate transition to the forwarding state, and bypasses the twice-the-forward-delay long listening and learning stages. The administrator only needs to remember these to benefit from fast convergence:

This negotiation between bridges is only possible when bridges are connected by point-to-point links (that is, full-duplex links unless explicit port configuration).

Edge ports play an even more important role now that PortFast is enabled on ports in 802.1D. For instance, if the network administrator fails to properly configure the edge ports on B, their connectivity is impacted by the link between A and the root that comes up.

UplinkFast

Another form of immediate transition to the forwarding state included in RSTP is similar to the Cisco UplinkFast proprietary spanning tree extension. Basically, when a bridge loses its root port, it is able to put its best alternate port directly into the forwarding mode (the appearance of a new root port is also handled by RSTP). The selection of an alternate port as the new root port generates a topology change. The 802.1w topology change mechanism clears the appropriate entries in the Content Addressable Memory (CAM) tables of the upstream bridge. This removes the need for the dummy multicast generation process of UplinkFast. UplinkFast does not need to be configured further because the mechanism is included natively and enabled in RSTP automatically.

Topology Change Mechanisms

Once the root bridge is aware of a change in the topology of the network, it sets the TC flag on the BPDUs it sends out, which are then relayed to all the bridges in the network. When a bridge receives a BPDU with the TC flag bit set, it reduces its bridging-table aging time to forward delay seconds. This ensures a relatively quick flush of stale information. Refer to Understanding Spanning-Tree Protocol Topology Changes for more information on this process. This topology change mechanism is deeply remodeled in RSTP. Both the detection of a topology change and its propagation through the network evolve.



Topology Change Detection
In RSTP, only non-edge ports that move to the forwarding state cause a topology change. This means that a loss of connectivity is not considered as a topology change any more, contrary to 802.1D (that is, a port that moves to blocking no longer generates a TC). When a RSTP bridge detects a topology change, these occur:

It starts the TC While timer with a value equal to twice the hello-time for all its non-edge designated ports and its root port, if necessary.
It flushes the MAC addresses associated with all these ports.


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Rapid PVST+

Rapid PVST+ is the IEEE 802.1w (RSTP) standard implemented per VLAN. A single instance of STP runs on each configured VLAN (if you do not manually disable STP). Each Rapid PVST+ instance on a VLAN has a single root switch. You can enable and disable STP on a per-VLAN basis when you are running Rapid PVST+ . Rapid PVST+ uses point-to-point wiring to provide rapid convergence of the spanning tree. The spanning tree reconfiguration can occur in less than 1 second with Rapid PVST+ (in contrast to 50 seconds with the default settings in the 802.1D STP).

Note: Rapid PVST+ is the default STP mode for the switch. Rapid PVST+ supports one STP instance for each VLAN.

Using Rapid PVST+, STP convergence occurs rapidly. Each designated or root port in the STP sends out a BPDU every 2 seconds by default. On a designated or root port in the topology, if hello messages are missed three consecutive times, or if the maximum age expires, the port immediately flushes all protocol information in the table. A port considers that it loses connectivity to its direct neighbor root or designated port if it misses three BPDUs or if the maximum age expires. This rapid aging of the protocol information allows quick failure detection. The switch automatically checks the PVID. Rapid PVST+ provides for rapid recovery of connectivity following the failure of a network device, a switch port, or a LAN. It provides rapid convergence for edge ports, new root ports, and ports connected through point-to-point links as follows:

• Edge ports—When you configure a port as an edge port on an RSTP switch, the edge port immediately transitions to the forwarding state. (This immediate transition was previously a Cisco-proprietary feature named PortFast.) You should only configure on ports that connect to a single end station as edge ports. Edge ports do not generate topology changes when the link changes. Enter the spanning-tree port type interface configuration command to configure a port as an STP edge port.
• Root ports—If Rapid PVST+ selects a new root port, it blocks the old root port and immediately transitions the new root port to the forwarding state.
• Point-to-point links—If you connect a port to another port through a point-to-point link and the local port becomes a designated port, it negotiates a rapid transition with the other port by using the proposal-agreement handshake to ensure a loop-free topology.

Rapid PVST+ achieves rapid transition to the forwarding state only on edge ports and point-to-point links. Although the link type is configurable, the system automatically derives the link type information from the duplex setting of the port. Full-duplex ports are assumed to be point-to-point ports, while half-duplex ports are assumed to be shared ports. Edge ports do not generate topology changes, but all other designated and root ports generate a topology change (TC) BPDU when they either fail to receive three consecutive BPDUs from the directly connected neighbor or the maximum age times out. At this point, the designated or root port sends out a BPDU with the TC flag set. The BPDUs continue to set the TC flag as long as the TC While timer runs on that port. The value of the TC While timer is the value set for the hello time plus 1 second. The initial detector of the topology change immediately floods this information throughout the entire topology.

When Rapid PVST+ detects a topology change, the protocol does the following:

• Starts the TC While timer with a value equal to twice the hello time for all the non-edge root and designated ports, if necessary.
• Flushes the MAC addresses associated with all these ports.

The topology change notification floods quickly across the entire topology. The system flushes dynamic entries immediately on a per-port basis when it receives a topology change.

Rapid PVST+ BPDUs

Rapid PVST+ and 802.1w use all six bits of the flag byte to add the role and state of the port that originates the BPDU, and the proposal and agreement handshake. Figure shows the use of the BPDU flags in Rapid PVST+. Another important change is that the Rapid PVST+ BPDU is type 2, version 2, which makes it possible for the switch to detect connected legacy (802.1D) bridges. The BPDU for 802.1D is version 0.

Proposal and Agreement Handshake

As shown, switch A is connected to switch B through a point-to-point link, and all of the ports are in the blocking state. Assume that the priority of switch A is a smaller numerical value than the priority of switch B.



Switch A sends a proposal message (a configuration BPDU with the proposal flag set) to switch B, proposing itself as the designated switch. After receiving the proposal message, switch B selects as its new root port the port from which the proposal message was received, forces all non-edge ports to the blocking state, and sends an agreement message (a BPDU with the agreement flag set) through its new root port. After receiving the agreement message from switch B, switch A also immediately transitions its designated port to the forwarding state. No loops in the network can form because switch B blocked all of its non-edge ports and because there is a point-to-point link between switches A and B.

When switch C connects to switch B, a similar set of handshaking messages are exchanged. Switch C selects the port connected to switch B as its root port, and both ends of the link immediately transition to the forwarding state. With each iteration of this handshaking process, one more network device joins the active topology. As the network converges, this proposal-agreement handshaking progresses from the root toward the leaves of the spanning tree.

The switch learns the link type from the port duplex mode: a full-duplex port is considered to have a point-to-point connection and a half-duplex port is considered to have a shared connection. You can override the default setting that is controlled by the duplex setting by entering the spanning-tree link-type interface configuration command. This proposal/agreement handshake is initiated only when a non-edge port moves from the blocking to the forwarding state. The handshaking process then proliferates step-by-step throughout the topology.

Protocol Timers

Hello timer:
Determines how often each switch broadcasts BPDUs to other switches. The default is 2 seconds, and the range is from 1 to 10.

Forward delay timer:
Determines how long each of the listening and learning states last before the port begins forwarding. This timer is generally not used by the protocol but is used as a backup. The default is 15 seconds, and the range is from 4 to 30 seconds.

Maximum age timer:
Determines the amount of time protocol information received on an port is stored by the switch. This timer is generally not used by the protocol, but it is used when interoperating with 802.1D spanning tree. The default is 20 seconds; the range is from 6 to 40 seconds.

Port Roles

Rapid PVST+ provides rapid convergence of the spanning tree by assigning port roles and learning the active topology. Rapid PVST+ builds upon the 802.1D STP to select the switch with the highest priority (lowest numerical priority value) as the root bridge. Rapid PVST+ then assigns one of these port roles to individual ports:

• Root port—Provides the best path (lowest cost) when the switch forwards packets to the root bridge.
• Designated port—Connects to the designated switch, which incurs the lowest path cost when forwarding packets from that LAN to the root bridge. The port through which the designated switch is attached to the LAN is called the designated port.
• Alternate port—Offers an alternate path toward the root bridge to the path provided by the current root port. An alternate port provides a path to another switch in the topology.
• Backup port—Acts as a backup for the path provided by a designated port toward the leaves of the spanning tree. A backup port can exist only when two ports are connected in a loopback by a point-to-point link or when a switch has two or more connections to a shared LAN segment. A backup port provides another path in the topology to the switch.
• Disabled port—Has no role within the operation of the spanning tree.

In a stable topology with consistent port roles throughout the network, Rapid PVST+ ensures that every root port and designated port immediately transition to the forwarding state while all alternate and backup ports are always in the blocking state. Designated ports start in the blocking state. The port state controls the operation of the forwarding and learning processes.

Rapid PVST+ Port State

Propagation delays can occur when protocol information passes through a switched LAN. As a result, topology changes can take place at different times and at different places in a switched network. When a LAN port transitions directly from nonparticipation in the spanning tree topology to the forwarding state, it can create temporary data loops. Ports must wait for new topology information to propagate through the switched LAN before starting to forward frames.

Each LAN port on a software using Rapid PVST+ or MST exists in one of the following four states:

• Blocking—The LAN port does not participate in frame forwarding.
• Learning—The LAN port prepares to participate in frame forwarding.
• Forwarding—The LAN port forwards frames.
• Disabled—The LAN port does not participate in STP and is not forwarding frames.

When you enable Rapid PVST+, every port in the software, VLAN, and network goes through the blocking state and the transitory states of learning at power up. If properly configured, each LAN port stabilizes to the forwarding or blocking state. When the STP algorithm places a LAN port in the forwarding state, the following process occurs:

1.The LAN port is put into the blocking state while it waits for protocol information that suggests it should go to the learning state.
2.The LAN port waits for the forward delay timer to expire, moves the LAN port to the learning state, and restarts the forward delay timer.
3.In the learning state, the LAN port continues to block frame forwarding as it learns the end station location information for the forwarding database.
4.The LAN port waits for the forward delay timer to expire and then moves the LAN port to the forwarding state, where both learning and frame forwarding are enabled.

Blocking State
• Discards frames received from the attached segment.
• Discards frames switched from another port for forwarding.
• Does not incorporate the end station location into its address database. (There is no learning on a blocking LAN port, so there is no address database update.)
• Receives BPDUs and directs them to the system module.
• Receives, processes, and transmits BPDUs received from the system module.
• Receives and responds to network management messages.

Learning State
• Discards frames received from the attached segment.
• Discards frames switched from another port for forwarding.
• Incorporates the end station location into its address database.
• Receives BPDUs and directs them to the system module.
• Receives, processes, and transmits BPDUs received from the system module.
• Receives and responds to network management messages.

Forwarding State
• Forwards frames received from the attached segment.
• Forwards frames switched from another port for forwarding
• Incorporates the end station location information into its address database.
• Receives BPDUs and directs them to the system module.
• Processes BPDUs received from the system module.
• Receives and responds to network management messages

Disabled State
• Discards frames received from the attached segment.
• Discards frames switched from another port for forwarding.
• Does not incorporate the end station location into its address database. (There is no learning, so there is no address database update.)
• Does not receive BPDUs from neighbors.
• Does not receive BPDUs for transmission from the system module.

Synchronization of Port Roles

When the switch receives a proposal message on one of its ports and that port is selected as the new root port, Rapid PVST+ forces all other ports to synchronize with the new root information. The switch is synchronized with superior root information received on the root port if all other ports are synchronized. An individual port on the switch is synchronized if either of the following applies:

• That port is in the blocking state.
• It is an edge port (a port configured to be at the edge of the network).

If a designated port is in the forwarding state and is not configured as an edge port, it transitions to the blocking state when the Rapid PVST+ forces it to synchronize with new root information. In general, when the Rapid PVST+ forces a port to synchronize with root information and the port does not satisfy any of the above conditions, its port state is set to blocking. After ensuring that all of the ports are synchronized, the switch sends an agreement message to the designated switch that corresponds to its root port. When the switches connected by a point-to-point link are in agreement about their port roles, Rapid PVST+ immediately transitions the port states to the forwarding state.

Processing Superior BPDU Information

A superior BPDU is a BPDU with root information (such as a lower switch ID or lower path cost) that is superior to what is currently stored for the port. If a port receives a superior BPDU, Rapid PVST+ triggers a reconfiguration. If the port is proposed and is selected as the new root port, Rapid PVST+ forces all the other ports to synchronize. If the received BPDU is a Rapid PVST+ BPDU with the proposal flag set, the switch sends an agreement message after all of the other ports are synchronized. The new root port transitions to the forwarding state as soon as the previous port reaches the blocking state.

If the superior information received on the port causes the port to become a backup port or an alternate port, Rapid PVST+ sets the port to the blocking state and sends an agreement message. The designated port continues sending BPDUs with the proposal flag set until the forward-delay timer expires. At that time, the port transitions to the forwarding state.

Processing Inferior BPDU Information

An inferior BPDU is a BPDU with root information (such as a higher switch ID or higher path cost) that is inferior to what is currently stored for the port. If a designated port receives an inferior BPDU, it immediately replies with its own information.

Enabling Rapid PVST+

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst

Enabling Rapid PVST+ per VLAN

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5


To disable,
switch(config)# no spanning-tree vlan-range

Configuring the Root Bridge ID

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 root primary diameter 4


Note: Configures a software switch as the primary root bridge. The vlan-range value can be 2 through 4094 (except reserved VLAN values.) The dia default is 7. The hello-time can be from 1 to 10 seconds, and the default value is 2 seconds.

Configuring a Secondary Root Bridge

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 root secondary diameter 4

Configuring the Rapid PVST+ Port Priority

You can assign lower priority values to LAN ports that you want Rapid PVST+ to select first and higher priority values to LAN ports that you want Rapid PVST+ to select last. If all LAN ports have the same priority value, Rapid PVST+ puts the LAN port with the lowest LAN port number in the forwarding state and blocks other LAN ports. The software uses the port priority value when the LAN port is configured as an access port and uses VLAN port priority values when the LAN port is configured as a trunk port.

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# interface ethernet 1/4
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree port-priority 160

Configuring the Rapid PVST+ Pathcost Method and Port Cost

On access ports, you assign port cost by the port. On trunk ports, you assign the port cost by VLAN; you can configure the same port cost on all the VLANs on a trunk.

switch# configure terminal
switch (config)# spanning-tree pathcost method long
switch (config)# interface ethernet 1/4
switch(config-if)# spanning-tree cost 1000

Configuring the Rapid PVST+ Bridge Priority of a VLAN

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 priority 8192


Configures the bridge priority of a VLAN. Valid values are 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, and 61440. All other values are rejected. The default value is 32768.

Configuring the Rapid PVST+ Hello Time for a VLAN

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 hello-time 7

Configuring the Rapid PVST+ Forward Delay Time for a VLAN

switch# configure terminal
switch(config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 forward-time 21

Verifying Rapid PVST+ Configurations

switch# show running-config spanning-tree - Displays the current spanning tree configuration.

switch# show spanning-tree brief - Displays selected detailed information for the spanning tree configuration.